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  Morphine

Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names


Systems General (Systemic)
Category Prototype Opioid Analgesic


Pharmacokinetics

Morphine when given orally is absorbed very slowly, and it undergoes extensive first pass metabolism resulting in 20%- 40% of bio-availability.When given intravenously it has an immediate action. Distribution is wide ;concentration in liver,spleen and kidney is greater than plasma.Small fraction enters brain slowly.Morphine freely crosses placenta.It is metabolised in liver by glucuronide conjugation and is excreted in urine and bile..Half-life of morphine is 2 hours and duration of analgesia is 4-6 hours.



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Indications

Morphine is indicated in moderate to severe pain as in surgery, trauma, acute pulmonary edema, fractures, cancer pain, and severe neuralgia.



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Routes of Administration and Dosage

Short-acting oral dose (capsules, oral solution, syrup, or tablets): For severe, chronic pain in Adults: initially 10 to 30 milligrams (mg) every four hours. For injection dosage form: For pain in Adults: 5 to 20 mg (usually 10 mg), injected IM or SC every four hours as needed. It can also be given as 4 to 10 mg, injected slowly as IV. Children: 0.1 to 0.2 mg per kg of body weight, up to a maximum of 15 mg, injected SC every four hours as needed. It can also be administered as 0.05 to 0.1 mg per kg of body weight, injected slowly as IV.



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Contra Indications

Morphine is contraindicated in respiratory depression, hypersensitivity, paralytic ileus, delayed gastric emptying, Obstructive airway disease, acute hepatic disease, MAO Inhibitor administration, pregnancy, lactation and in children.



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Precautions

Some of the adverse effects of morphine can be dangerous in CNS disease, head injury, Emphysema, asthma, chronic lung disease, enlarged prostate and in micturition difficulties. The chance of adverse effects may be increased in Colitis, cardiac disease, renal disease and in Hepatic disease.



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Interactions

Morphine will not be effective in people taking naltrexone. It can increase the sedative effect of alcohol, increase the risk of respiratory depression when used with MAO inhibitors and Cimetidine. It antagonises the effects of diuretics.



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Brand Names

Morcontin(Modi Mundipharma), Morphine HcL(BDH)



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Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names

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