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  Spironolactone

Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names


Systems Cardiovascular and Genitourinary System
Category Potassium sparing diuretic


Pharmacokinetics

Its onset and duration of action depends on the kinetics of aldosterone response in the target tissue. Inactivation occurs in the liver.



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Indications

Potassium-sparing diuretics are commonly used to help reduce the amount of water in the body. Unlike some other diuretics, these drugs do not cause the body to lose potassium. Spironolactone is also used to treat hypertension. Hypertension. adds to the workload of the heart and arteries. If the condition is prolonged for a long duration of time, the heart and arteries may not function properly. This can damage the blood vessels of the brain, heart, and kidneys, resulting in a stroke, cardiac failure, or renal failure. Hypertension. may also increase the risk of Myocardial Infarction. These problems may be less likely to occur if blood pressure is controlled. Spironolactone is also used to help increase the amount of potassium in the body when it is getting depleted. Potassium-sparing diuretics help to reduce the amount of water in the body by acting on the kidneys to increase the flow of urine. This also helps to lower blood pressure.



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Routes of Administration and Dosage

Oral dose : Diuretic: Adults : At first, 25 to 200 milligrams (mg) a day. This is divided into two to four doses. It may be increased to 75 to 400 mg a day. Children : The usual dose is 1 to 3 mg per kilogram (kg) of body weight a day. The dose may be taken as a single dose or divided into two to four doses.For hypertension: Adults: At first, 50 to 100 milligrams (mg) a day. This may be taken as a single dose or divided into two to four doses. It may be gradually increased up to 200 mg a day.Children : The usual dose is 1 to 3 mg per kg of body weight a day. The dose may be taken as a single dose or divided into two to four doses. To treat elevated aldosterone levels in the body: Adults : 100 to 400 mg a day. For detecting high aldosterone levels in the body: Adults: 400 mg a day, taken in two to four divided doses. To treat hypokalemia: Adults: 25 to 100 mg a day. This may be taken as a single dose or divided into two to four doses.



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Contra Indications

Contraindicated in anuria, hypersensitivity, renal failure, Addison's disease, lactation, pregnancy.



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Precautions

Allergies :Allergic reaction to spironolactone may occur. In general, diuretics are not useful for normal edema of feet and hands that occurs during pregnancy. Older adults: Signs and symptoms of hyperkalemia are more likely to occur in the elderly, who are more sensitive than younger adults to the effects of this drug.



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Interactions

Interaction has been found with the following drugs: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors benazepril, captopril, enalapril, fosinopril, lisinopril, quinapril, ramipril or cyclosporine or Potassium-containing drugs or supplements: Use with potassium-sparing diuretics may cause elevated blood levels of potassium, which may increase the chance of adverse effects. Digoxin : Use with spironolactone may cause high blood levels of digoxin, which may increase the chance of adverse effects. Lithium : Use with potassium-sparing diuretics may cause elevated levels of lithium, which may increase the chance of adverse effects.



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Brand Names

Aldactone (Searle).



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Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names

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