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  Atropine

Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names


Systems Eye, Neuromuscular and Cardiovascular System
Category Belladonna Alkaloid, antimuscaranic


Pharmacokinetics

Atropine is satisfactorily absorbed from Gut, Mucous membrane and from parentral site of administration. It is partly detoxified by the liver and partly excreted unchanged in the urine.



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Indications

Belladonna alkaloids and barbiturates are combination drugs taken to relieve cramping and spasm of the stomach and intestines. They are used also to decrease the amount of acid formed in the stomach



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Routes of Administration and Dosage

For stomach or intestinal problems: For oral dosage form (capsules or tablets): Adults: 1 or 2 capsules or tablets two to four times a day. For oral dosage form (solution): Older adults, adults, and teenagers :1 to 2 teaspoonfuls ( 5 to 10 ml ) three or four times a day. Children : The usual dose is 0.5 to 3 ml every four to six hours.



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Contra Indications

Contraindications are glaucoma, chronic respiratory tract infection, sick sinus syndrome, thyrotoxicosis, cardiac failure, pyloric stenosis and prostatic hypertrophy.



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Precautions

Children : Severe side effects may be more likely to occur in infants and children, especially those with spastic paralysis or brain damage. Unusual excitement, nervousness, restlessness, or irritability and unusual warmth, dryness, and flushing of skin are more likely to occur in children, who are usually more sensitive to the effects of belladonna alkaloids. Also, when belladonna alkaloids are given to children during hot weather, pyrexia may occur. Adults : Confusion or memory loss; constipation; difficulty in mictiruition; drowsiness; dryness of mouth, nose, throat, or skin; and unusual excitement, nervousness, restlessness, or irritability may be more likely to occur in the elderly, who are usually more sensitive than younger adults to the effects of belladonna alkaloids and barbiturates. Also, eye pain may occur, which may be a sign of glaucoma



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Interactions

The following interactions are seen - Adrenocorticoids or Corticotropin (ACTH): Belladonna alkaloids and barbiturates may decrease the response to these drugs. Antacids or anti-diarrhoeals containing kaolin or attapulgite : These medications may decrease the response to belladonna alkaloid. Anticholinergics : Belladonna alkaloids and barbiturates may increase the response to anticholinergics. Anticoagulants : Belladonna alkaloids and barbiturates may decrease the effect of these drugs. Central nervous system depressants: The CNS effects of either drug could be increased. Ketoconazole : Using ketoconazole with this combination may lessen the effects of ketoconazole and barbiturates. Potassium chloride : May cause an increase in lesions of the stomach or intestine if used together with atropine.



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Brand Names

Atromet (Milmet), Atropine (Jawa), Atrosun (Sunways), Bellpino-Atrin (Bell), Tropine (Neon Labs), Tropa (Jawa Pharma).



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Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names

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