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  Carbamazepine

Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names


Systems Central Nervous System
Category Anti-epileptic


Pharmacokinetics

It has slower absorption in the gut .It is 75 % bound to plasma proteins. metabolised in the Liver by oxidative enzymes.Plasma half life is 20 to 40 hrs but decreases on chronic administration.



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Indications

Carbamazepine is mainly used to control psycho motor epilepsy, grand mal and cortical focal types of seizures in the treatment of epilepsy. It is also used to relieve pain due to trigeminal neuralgia (tic douloureux) .



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Routes of Administration and Dosage

For adults ; initially 200 mg b.d,increase gradually upto 1600 mg / day. In children upto 1 year ;100 mgs to 200 mgs /day, 1 to 5 yrs 100 mgs/day gradually increase upto 400 mgs /day in divided doses.For children from 6 to 10 yrs 200 mgs/day gradually increase upto 400 to 800 mgs /day.



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Contra Indications

Carbamazepine may be contraindicated in hepatic and renal disease, glaucoma and A.V conduction abnormalities and hypersensitivity.



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Precautions

Allergies - May sometimes occur with this drug. In older adults - Confusion, restlessness and nervousness, arrhythmias, bradycardia, palpitation and angina pectoris are more likely to occur .Adverse reactions like aplastic anaemia,hepatitis, steven-johnson syndrome have been reported.Pregnancy - There are reports of babies having low birth weight, small head size, skull and facial defects, underdeveloped fingernails, and delays in growth, when their mothers had taken carbamazepine in high doses during pregnancy. Studies in animals have revealed that carbamazepine causes birth defects when given in large doses. Therefore, the use of carbamazepine during pregnancy should be treated with caution. Breast-feeding - Carbamazepine passes into the breast milk, and in some cases the baby may receive sufficient amounts to cause adverse effects. Children - Behavior changes are more likely to occur in children.



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Interactions

Carbamazepine is an enzyme inducer.Its metabolism is induced by phenobarbitone, phenytoin, valproate and vice versa. It has also been found to reduce the blood levels of valproic acid. Erythromycin inhibits the metabolism of carbamazepine. By enzyme induction it reduces the efficacy of oral contraceptives.



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Brand Names

Carbadac 200 (Cadila), Carbatol (Torrent), Carbazin (Saga Labs), Carmaz (Natco), Epinil (Themis Pharma), Mazetol (SPPL), Mezapin (LA Pharma), Tegretol (Novartis), Versizur (Micro Labs), Zen Retard (Intas), Zeptol (Sun Pharma)



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Pharmacokinetics | Indications | Routes of Administration and Dosage | Contra Indications | Precautions | Interactions | Brand Names

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